Verified Voting’s goals and strategies have been developed in consultation with many others who are on our Board of Advisors. All members of our Board of Directors are also on the advisory board.

appel_150Andrew W. Appel, Ph.D., is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Computer Science at Princeton University, where he has been on the faculty since 1986. He served as Department Chair from 2009-2015. His research is in software verification, computer security, programming languages and compilers, and technology policy. He received his A.B. /summa cum laude/ in physics from Princeton in 1981, and his PhD in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University in 1985. He has been Editor in Chief of ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems and is a Fellow of the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery). He has worked on fast N-body algorithms (1980s), Standard ML of New Jersey (1990s), Foundational Proof-Carrying Code (2000s), and the Verified Software Toolchain (2010s).  He is the author of several scientific papers on voting machines and election technology, served as an expert witness on two voting-related court cases in New Jersey, taught a course at Princeton on Election Machinery, and was a member of the 2017-18 National Academy of Sciences  study committee on the Future of Voting.

bellovin-150Steven M. Bellovin is the Percy K. and Vidal L. W. Hudson Professor of computer science at Columbia University and member of the Cybersecurity and Privacy Center of the university’s Data Science Institute. He is the Technology Scholar at the Privacy and Civil Liberties Board. He does research on security and privacy and on related public policy issues. In his copious spare professional time, he does some work on the history of cryptography. He joined the faculty in 2005 after many years at Bell Labs and AT&T Labs Research, where he was an AT&T Fellow. He received a BA degree from Columbia University, and an MS and PhD in Computer Science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While a graduate student, he helped create Netnews; for this, he and the other perpetrators were given the 1995 Usenix Lifetime Achievement Award (The Flame). Bellovin has served as Chief Technologist of the Federal Trade Commission. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and is serving on the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. In the past, he has been a member of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Advisory Committee, and the Technical Guidelines Development Committee of the Election Assistance Commission; he has also received the 2007 NIST/NSA National Computer Systems Security Award and has been elected to the Cybersecurity Hall of Fame.

Bellovin is the author of Thinking Security and the co-author of Firewalls and Internet Security: Repelling the Wily Hacker, and holds a number of patents on cryptographic and network protocols. He has served on many National Research Council study committees, including those on information systems trustworthiness, the privacy implications of authentication technologies, and cybersecurity research needs; he was also a member of the information technology subcommittee of an NRC study group on science versus terrorism. He was a member of the Internet Architecture Board from 1996-2002; he was co-director of the Security Area of the IETF from 2002 through 2004.

Matt Blaze is a computer science professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where his research focuses on secure systems, cryptography, surveillance, and the intersection of technology and public policy. He has led technical reviews on several voting systems commissioned by the states of California and Ohio.

Jeff Bleich is the CEO of Dentons Diplomatic Solutions, an international consulting group composed of senior government executives, and a partner and member of the leadership team of Dentons LLP.  He previously served as the U.S. Ambassador to Australia from 2009 to 2013, and as Special Counsel to President Obama in the White House, and as a partner at Munger, Tolles & Olson LLP. Ambassador Bleich specializes in resolving complex international disputes and advising institutions on cyber-security and technology issues.  He served as a senior advisor to the Director of National Intelligence on cybersecurity matters, as well as serving as an advisor to California Governor Jerry Brown, and to Secretary Hillary Clinton.  He serves on multiple boards or advisory boards of international cyber-technology companies and think tanks including RAND, Palantir, and Nuix.  He has been recognized as one of the most influential lawyers in the United States by LawDragon and other legal publications.

Ambassador Bleich currently serves as the Chair of the Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board, and previously served as the Chair of the California State University Board of Trustees, President of the California State Bar, President of the Bar Association of San Francisco, as well as leading or chairing several  other non-profit organizations. He has taught several courses at UC Berkeley School of Law, and publishes extensively. He holds a B.A. magna cum laude from Amherst College, an M.P.P from Harvard with highest honors, a J.D. from the Univ. of California, Berkeley with highest honors, and honorary Doctorates from San Francisco State University and Flinders University.  Earlier in his career, Ambassador Bleich clerked for Chief Justice William Rehnquist of the U.S. Supreme Court, Judge Abner Mikva of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, Judge Howard Holtzmann of the Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal at The Hague, and was the Special Rapporteur for the Permanent Court of Arbitration.  He is a certified arbitrator by the American Arbitration Association.*

*For his service, Ambassador Bleich has received numerous awards, including the State Department’s highest award for a non-career ambassador – The Sue M. Cobb Prize for Exemplary Diplomatic Service, and distinguished public service awards from both the Director of National Intelligence and the Secretary of the Navy. He was elected a life member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Law Institute, and the American Bar Association Fellows.  The City of San Francisco has named January 8, Jeff Bleich Day in San Francisco.*

Cindy Cohn is the Executive Director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. From 2000-2015 she served as EFF’s Legal Director as well as its General Counsel. Ms. Cohn first became involved with EFF in 1993, when EFF asked her to serve as the outside lead attorney in Bernstein v. Dept. of Justice, the successful First Amendment challenge to the U.S. export restrictions on cryptography. The National Law Journal named Ms. Cohn one of 100 most influential lawyers in America in 2013, noting: “[I]f Big Brother is watching, he better look out for Cindy Cohn.” She was also named in 2006 for “rushing to the barricades wherever freedom and civil liberties are at stake online.”  In 2007 the National Law Journal named her one of the 50 most influential women lawyers in America. In 2010 the Intellectual Property Section of the State Bar of California awarded her its Intellectual Property Vanguard Award and in 2012 the Northern California Chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists awarded her the James Madison Freedom of Information Award.

Lillie Coney is currently the Legislative Director for Representative Sheila Jackson Lee, previously she was the Associate Director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, DC. In 2009 Lillie was appointed to the Election Assistance Commission Board of Advisors. She wrote the chapter “Mobilize Underrepresented Voters” in The New York Times bestseller, 50 Ways to Love Your Country. She co-chaired the 2011 Computers Freedom and Privacy Conference: the Future is Now, and chaired the Public Voice Conferences in 2010 and 2011.

Larry DiamondLarry Diamond, Ph.D. is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University, where he teaches courses and conducts research on comparative democratic development.  Diamond is the founding co-editor of the Journal of Democracy and a Senior Consultant at the International Forum for Democratic Studies of the National Endowment for Democracy. A former director of the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at Stanford, he is the co-founder and principal investigator of its Program in Liberation Technology and co-editor of Liberation Technology: Social Media and the Struggle for Democracy (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012).

EfrainEfrain Escobedo is the vice president in charge of civic engagement, multisector collaboration and public policy at California Community Foundation, responsible for promoting collaboration and advocacy efforts across the nonprofit, public and private sectors to address community problems. He is recognized nationally and locally as an active leader and expert in Latino civic engagement and elections policy. He has worked extensively with academia, civic and community organizations, as well as with elected officials in developing research, strategies and program to increase voter participation.

Prior to joining CCF, Escobedo was the manager of governmental and legislative affairs for the Registrar of Voters in Los Angeles County, the largest election jurisdiction in the nation with more than 4.5 million registered voters. There, he worked with elected officials to enact numerous initiatives aimed at making the voting process easier for Angelenos, including the electronic delivery of sample ballots and the authorization of online voter registration. Escobedo also served as senior director of civic engagement for the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials (NALEO) Educational Fund, where he led the development of innovative voter contact strategies and technologies that have helped to engage more than one million young, newly registered and infrequent Latino voters across the country. Escobedo earned his bachelor’s degree in American studies and ethnicity from the University of Southern California and is a recent graduate of the Los Angeles County Executive Leadership Program.

FarberDave Farber was appointed to be Chief Technologist at the US Federal Communications Commission in 2000 and has served on the US Presidential Advisory Board on Information Technology and the FCC’s Technological Advisory Council. Prof. Farber was also appointed to the Advisory Council or the CISE Directorate of the National Science Foundation and is a Trustee of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. He is a Visiting Professor of the Center for Global Communications of Japan — Glocom of the International University of Japan, a Member of the Advisory Board at the National Institute of Informatics of Japan and a Member of the Advisory Boards of both the Center for Democracy and Technology and EPIC. He was named in the 1997 edition of the UPSIDE’s Elite 100, as one of the Visionaries of the field and was named in the 1999 Network World as one of the 25 most powerful people in Networking. In 2002 he was named by Business Week as one of the top 25 leaders in E-Commerce. His industrial experiences are extensive, just as he entered the academic world; he co-founded Caine, Farber & Gordon Inc. (CFG Inc.) which became one of the leading suppliers of software design methodology. His consulting activities include Intel, the RAND Corp among others. He is also on a number of industrial advisory and management boards, major among these are NTT DoCoMo, Boingo, Rainmaker and E-tenna.

FeltenEdward W. Felten, Ph.D. is a Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs at Princeton University, and the founding Director of Princeton’s Center for Information Technology Policy. In 2011-12 he served as the first Chief Technologist at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. His research interests include computer security and privacy, especially relating to media and consumer products; and technology law and policy. He has published about eighty papers in the research literature, and two books. His research on topics such as web security, copyright and copy protection, and electronic voting has been covered extensively in the popular press. His weblog, at, is widely read for its commentary on technology, law, and policy. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a Fellow of the ACM. He has testified before the House and Senate committee hearings on privacy, electronic voting, and digital television. In 2004, Scientific American magazine named him to its list of fifty worldwide science and technology leaders. In May 2015 he was appointed deputy chief technology officer in the White House’s Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Lowell Finley is an attorney with a long history of involvement in election integrity issues.  In 2003, he brought the first successful lawsuit against a voting system manufacturer for misrepresenting the security capabilities of its product while marketing it to a county elections department.  That case, under the California False Claims Act, resulted in $2.6 million in payments to state and local agencies and an injunction, requiring Diebold Election Systems, Inc., to strengthen the security protocols employed with its Accuvote TS touchscreen voting machines and vote tabulation servers.  He was co-founder and co-director of Voter Action, a nonprofit that litigated state constitutional challenges to the use of paperless touchscreen voting systems in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Pennsylvania in 2005 and 2006.  From 2007 to 2014, he served as Deputy Secretary of State for Voting Systems Technology and Policy under California Secretary of State Debra Bowen.  In that capacity, he oversaw the 2007 Top To Bottom Review of the voting systems used in California, conducted in collaboration with computer security experts from the University of California, Princeton, Rice and other universities, which led to the decertification of several voting systems and eventually to the adoption of new, comprehensive voting system certification standards.  He also served as California’s representative on the Standards Board of the U.S. Election Assistance Commission.  He holds a B.A. from the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley School of Law.

Michael J. Fischer, Ph.D. has been Professor of Computer Science at Yale University since 1981. He has an M.A. (1965) and a Ph.D. (1968) from Harvard University. Professor Fischer supervised Josh Benaloh‘s dissertation, “Verifiable Secret-Ballot Elections” (1987), which was the first distributed voting protocol to simultaneously achieve voter privacy and voter verifiability. Professor Fischer is a founding member of, a public-service organization that helped to bring verifiable optical scan voting technology to Connecticut. He was appointed by Connecticut Governor Jodi Rell in 2005 to the short-lived Voting Technology Standards Board, where he was elected Vice-chair by its members. His research interests include theory of distributed and parallel computing, cryptography, and computer security.

John Gage is one of the founders of Sun Microsystems, a US computer pioneer. He was Chief Researcher, Vice President, and Director of the Science Office from 1982 until 2008. From 2008-2010 he was a partner at venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, focused on creating new companies based on innovations in energy, computing and materials technology. In 2010 he joined the University of California, Berkeley Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society. In 2011, he joined the Human Needs Project in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya as Chief Science Officer to develop and build water, sanitation, information and control systems to advance public health in the largest slum in East Africa. The Centre opened in 2014, and delivers hundreds of cubic meters of clean water a day to thousands of members of the slum community.

Gage has served on scientific advisory panels for the US National Research Council, the US National Academy of Sciences, and the World Economic Forum. Most recently, he served on the US National Academy Committee on Scientific Communication and National Security and on the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security, whose reports aided in reorganizing US intelligence agencies. He co-founded NetDay in 1995, bringing Internet connectivity to over 70,000 US schools by mobilizing hundreds of thousands of volunteer engineers. He has served on the boards of the US National Library of Medicine, of FermiLab, the Berkeley Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, and other scientific and educational groups. He served on the Board of Directors of the Markle Foundation in New York, and on the United Nations Digital Task Force. Currently he serves on the board of Liquid Robotics, on the Malaysian International Advisory Panel, and on the advisory boards of the University of California, Berkeley Goldman School of Public Policy, the Oxford Martin School, the Tegla Loroupe Peace Foundation in Kenya, the Human Needs Project, and the Open Source Election Technology Institute. Gage attended the University of California, Berkeley, the Harvard Business School, and the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

J. Alex Halderman is Professor of Computer Science & Engineering at the University of Michigan and Director of Michigan’s Center for Computer Security and Society. His research spans computer and network security, applied cryptography, security measurement, censorship resistance, and electronic voting, as well as the interaction of technology with politics and international affairs. Prof. Halderman has authored more than 80 technical publications, and his work has been recognized with numerous awards, including the John Gideon Memorial Award from the Election Verification Network. He has performed numerous security evaluations of real-world voting systems, both in the U.S. and around the world. He helped conduct California’s landmark “top-to-bottom” electronic voting systems review. He also led the first independent review of election technology in India, the world’s largest democracy. He led a team that hacked into Washington D.C.’s Internet voting system as part of a public security test, and he organized the first independent security audit of Estonia’s national online voting system. After the 2016 U.S. elections, he advised recount initiatives in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania in an effort to help detect and deter cyberattacks. He is also the creator of Security Digital Democracy, a massive, open, online course that explores the security risks—and future potential—of electronic voting and Internet voting technologies. He was named by Popular Science as one of the “brightest young minds reshaping science, engineering, and the world.”

Mark Halvorson is the founder, former director and current board member of Citizens for Election Integrity Minnesota. He has observed four statewide recounts, six statewide audits and has recruited and trained many non-partisan observers. In 2007 Mark helped to organize the first national Audit Summit.  He created the audit and recount state laws searchable databases and was an executive editor of Principles and Best Practices of Post-Election Audits as well as Recount Principles and Best Practices. He served on the Brennan Center Audit Panel and the national League of Women Voters audit working group. Mark was the recipient of the Election Verification Network’s 2017 John Gideon Memorial award for his long standing and highly effective advocacy for election integrity.

HellmanMartin E. Hellman, Ph.D. is Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University and best known for his invention, with Diffie and Merkle, of public key cryptography. This technology allows electronic banking and other secure transactions on the Internet, and protects literally trillions of dollars daily. Prof. Hellman has been a long-time contributor to the computer security debate, starting with his efforts in the mid 1970s to improve the security level of the Data Encryption Standard (DES). In the mid 1990s he served on the National Research Council’s Committee to Study National Cryptographic Policy, whose main recommendations have since been implemented. His current project focuses on reducing the unacceptable level of risk inherent in nuclear deterrence. Prof. Hellman’s many awards include the ACM Turing Award in 2015, election to the National Academy of Engineering, induction as an inaugural member of the Cyber Security Hall of Fame, EFF’s Pioneer Award, and three “outstanding professor” awards from minority student organizations.

Harri_150Harri Hursti is one of the world’s leading experts on voting systems and is known for his demonstration of the vulnerability of America’s voting systems in the HBO documentary, “Hacking Democracy”. He has been one of the lead technical resources in the major independent technical reviews of America’s voting systems: Ohio’s Sec. of State-ordered EVEREST Study and the New Jersey’s Superior Court judge-ordered review of the Sequoia voting machines. Harri is the 2009 recipient of the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s Pioneer Award for his role in demonstrating the vulnerability of America’s electronic voting machines.

Candice Hoke specializes in the governance and secure management of election technologies.  Holding a Yale Law J.D. and a Carnegie Mellon information security degree, she is currently working on developing cyber risk assessment tools that can be used in local election offices to improve election cybersecurity,  She has testified before Congress and the EAC, and worked with government officials, on matters that include post-election auditing; improving election technology procurement and testing, and establishing operational security policies and practices.  Her Federal work includes advising  Departments charged with protecting election integrity (including Homeland Security, Defense, and Justice) on election security issues,  She worked as a research team leader for the pathbreaking Top to Bottom Review of voting systems security conducted by the California Secretary of State.  Hoke served three terms on the American Bar Association’s Advisory Commission on Election Law; in Cleveland, she served as Director of both the Center for Election Integrity and the Public Monitor of Cuyahoga Election Reform. Currently she is the Founding Co-Director of the Center for Cybersecurity & Privacy Protection in Cleveland, OH and an emerita professor of law. Hoke continues to work closely with media producers and reporters on election security issues.

Roger G. Johnston, Ph.D., CPP, is Leader of the Vulnerability Assessment Team at Argonne National Laboratory. He was founder and head of the Vulnerability Assessment Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1992 to 2007. Johnston has provided consulting, training, vulnerability assessments, R&D, and security solutions for more than 50 government and international agencies, private companies, and NGOs. He graduated from Carleton College (1977), and received M.S. & Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Colorado (1983). He has authored over 165 technical papers and 90 invited talks (including 6 Keynote Addresses), holds 10 U.S. patents, and serves as Editor of the Journal of Physical Security.

anita_jones_tbThe Honorable Anita Jones is University Professor Emerita at the University of Virginia. She has served as the Director of Defense Research and Engineering for the U.S. Department of Defense, overseeing its science and technology program. She is currently a Fellow of the Defense Science Board and a member of the National Academy of Engineering, serving on its governing council. She was appointed by the President as a member of the National Science Board, and is a Fellow of the ACM, IEEE, and AAAS. The University of Southern California, Carnegie Mellon University, and Duke University have awarded Dr. Jones honorary degrees. She was awarded the IEEE Founders’ Medal, the Bueche Award of the National Academy of Engineering, and the Philip Abelson Award of the AAAS, mainly for contributions to science and technology policy   She has published over 45 papers on cyber security, programmed systems, and science and technology policy. The U.S. Navy named a seamount in the North Pacific Ocean for her.

Douglas W. Jones, Ph.D. is a computer scientist at the University of Iowa.  Together with Barbara Simons, he published Broken Ballots: Will Your Vote Count?.  His involvement with electronic voting research began in late 1994, when he was appointed to the Iowa Board of Examiners for Voting Machines and Electronic Voting Systems. He chaired the board from 1999 to 2003, and has testified before the United States Commission on Civil Rights, the United States House Committee on Science and the Federal Election Commission on voting issues. In 2005 he participated as an election observer for the presidential election in Kazakhstan. Jones was the technical advisor for HBO’s documentary on electronic voting machine issues, “Hacking Democracy“, that was released in 2006. He was a member of the ACCURATE electronic voting project from 2005 to 2011. On Dec. 11, 2009, the Election Assistance Commission appointed Douglas Jones to the Technical Guidelines Development Committee, where he served until 2012. Jones received a B.S. in physics from Carnegie Mellon University in 1973, and a M.S. and Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1976 and 1980 respectively.

Lou Katz, Ph.D.has a Doctorate in Physics from the University of Wisconsin, was a molecular biologist at MIT and the Director of the Computer Graphics Facility in the Department of Biology, Columbia University and Director of the Core Computer Facility at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and Director of Computing Resources in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of California, Berkeley. As one of the founders of the Usenix Association, he served as its first President and also as a director, and he also served as a member of the Executive Committee of ACM/Siggraph. He is experienced in computer systems and network management, database and email systems, and in evaluating the security aspects of software prior to deployment on internet-facing servers.

Douglas A. Kellner has served as Co-Chair of the New York State Board of Elections since 2005. He is also the New York State representative on the U.S. Election Assistance Commission Standards Board. Before assuming his responsibilities at the State Board of Elections, he served as commissioner of the New York City Board of Elections. He is an experienced election lawyer having served as the Co-Chair of the Law Committee of the New York Democratic Committee from 1982 to 1993 and as the Chairman of the Election Law Committee of the New York County Lawyers Association.

When he was first appointed to the New York City Board in 1993, Commissioner Kellner was the very first election official to call for a voter verifiable paper audit trail for electronic voting machines, a principle now enshrined not only in New York law, but in the election codes of a majority of the states throughout the nation. While leading the opposition to unverifiable electronic machines, Commissioner Kellner was instrumental in promoting new technology for scanning absentee and provisional ballots. He drafted model procedures to open the process of canvassing ballots to public scrutiny and convinced his fellow commissioners to adopt rules that provided meaningful due process in ballot challenges. He has been an outspoken advocate for improving the voting process in New York while insisting on transparency, verifiability and uniformity in voting procedures. Doug is a partner in the law firm, Kellner Herlihy Getty & Friedman LLP, where he specializes in complex international asset recovery litigation. He is the Chair of the North America Region of FraudNet, an organization of experts formed by the International Chamber of Commerce to assist in fraud recovery and tracing of assets.

Kiniry photoJoseph Kiniry, Ph.D is a Principal Investigator at Galois. He is also the Principled CEO and Chief Scientist of the public benefit corporation Free & Fair. Since 2002 he has held permanent positions at four universities in Denmark, Ireland, and The Netherlands, most recently a Full Professor and Head of the Software Engineering Section at the Technical University of Denmark. Joe has extensive experience in formal methods, high-assurance software engineering, foundations of computer science and mathematics, and information security. Specific areas that he has worked in include software verification foundations and tools, digital election systems and democracies, cryptography, smart-cards, smart-phones, critical systems for nation states and national security, and CAD systems for asynchronous hardware design. He has over fifteen years experience in the design, development, support, and auditing of supervised and internet/remote electronic voting systems. He co-led the DemTech research group at the IT University of Copenhagen and has served as an adviser to the US, Dutch, Irish, and Danish governments in matters relating to electronic voting.

Neal McBurnett is an independent consultant in election integrity, security and data science. He has helped secure elections since 2002 by pioneering post-election audits, serving as a precinct election judge, and working with election administrators, legislators and secretaries of state. He was a major contributor to “Principles and Best Practices for Post-Election Audits” (2008). He conducted the first risk-limiting audit outside California, and consulted on Colorado’s Risk Limiting Audit project and ballot-level risk-limiting audits that reached new levels of efficiency and scale. He also audited the innovative Scantegrity end-to-end-verifiable election in Takoma Park MD in 2011, and was a member of the STAR-Vote design team. He has also contributed to data format standards for elections, having served as vice-chair of IEEE P1622, and worked with NIST and the US Election Assistance Commission (EAC) in several VVSG working groups.  He is active with the Election Verification Network, and serves on the board of the Center for Election Science, exploring voting methods that better represent voters preferences.

McBurnett worked as a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at Bell Labs, Denver, where he led engagement with the WWW, IETF and open source. Then he helped run the Internet2 / NIST IDtrust symposium for 10 years, and has also taught AI at the University of Colorado, and worked with Databricks and Free & Fair. He holds Computer Science degrees from the University of California at Berkeley (M.S.) and Brown University (B.S.).

John L. McCarthy has a B.A. from Stanford and Ph.D. in American History from Yale, where he taught quantitative methods for historical research from 1968 to 1974, when he moved to UC Berkeley’s Survey Research Center. In 1980 John moved to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to help develop the first on-line database of U.S. Census data. Over the next 25 years he helped develop several major database and information systems and served on international standards committees for databases and metadata registries.

After retiring from Berkeley Lab, John has been a “full time volunteer” with Verified Voting since 2004, when he served as Project Manager for design and implementation of the first web-based Election Incident Reporting System for the Election Protection Coalition. In 2006 John initiated Verified Voting’s Election Auditing Project in cooperation with statisticians from the American Statistical Association and election integrity advocates, and he continues to help lead efforts for election auditing legislation, regulations, software, and implementation. Since 2012 John has served on IEEE and NIST-EAC standards committees for various aspects of election data, including election process modeling, reporting, inter-operability, and cyber-security.

Justin Moore, Ph.D. is a Senior Software Engineer with Google in Washington, DC. Since 2013 he has been a member of the Civics and Election Search team, working to make such data universally accessible and useful. His recent projects focus on common data standards for election information, working with state and location election officials, election vendors, and media organizations to enable greater civic engagement. Prior to this he was a member of the Datacenter Software team for seven years, working to improve the efficiency of Google’s fleet of datacenters. His PhD dissertation at Duke University explored how to schedule jobs in a datacenter with the goal of reducing the total cost of ownership; this was achieved by modeling and predicting the power, cooling, and hardware reliability effects of running computational tasks on different servers. Also while at Duke, he was an expert witness to both the North Carolina and Virginia state legislative subcommittees on voting reform. His contributions in North Carolina helped pass a comprehensive election reform bill in 2005 that has served as a model for dozens of other state-level reforms.

Dr. David Mussington, Ph.D., CISSP is Professor of the Practice and Director of the Center for Public Policy and Private Enterprise at the University of Maryland’s School of Public Policy. He directs the School’s Cyber Policy Initiative, and teaches on cyber policy issues and risk management. Prior to joining UMD in 2016, he was Assistant Director of the Information Technology and Systems Division at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). David is also a Senior Fellow at Canada’s Center for International Governance Innovation (CIGI). David has over two decades of experience in the national security, cyber security, and private sector experience.

Dr. Mussington served on the White House National Security Council staff – as Director Surface Transportation Security Policy and was previously Senior Advisor for Cyber Policy for the US Department of Defense. Since leaving federal service, David has directed cybersecurity studies for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), the Federal Communications Commission and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). David has led cyber risk assessments for the Bank of Canada and for private sector entities in the US and Canada. Most recently he has conducted projects on election cybersecurity, social media information security issues, and the security of ICT supply chains. An internationally known expert on critical infrastructure cybersecurity, focusing on protection priorities and identification of adversary attack strategies.

Peter Neumann, Ph.D. holds doctorates from Harvard and Darmstadt. After 10 years at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in the 1960s, during which he was heavily involved in the Multics development jointly with MIT and Honeywell, he has been in SRI’s Computer Science Lab since September 1971. He moderates the ACM Risks Forum, has been responsible for CACM’s Inside Risks columns monthly from 1990 to 2007, tri-annually since then, chairs the ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, and chairs the National Committee for Voting Integrity.

Mike Olson Mike Olson earned Bachelors and Master’s degrees in Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley. He spent his professional career working in data management in a variety of roles, including developer, sales and marketing, and senior executive. He served as CEO at Sleepycat Software from 2001 through its acquisition by Oracle in 2006, and continued as VP Embedded Systems at Oracle until 2008. He was a co-founder, board chair and CEO at Cloudera from 2008 until 2013, when he became the company’s Chief Strategy Officer until his retirement in 2019. He currently holds a number of board seats at not-for-profit organizations pursuing social good programs in the technology sector.

pearl_150Morris Pearl currently serves as Chair of the Patriotic Millionaires, a group of 200 high-net-worth Americans who are committed to building a more prosperous, stable, and inclusive nation. The group focuses on promoting public policy solutions that encourage political equality; guarantee a sustaining wage for working Americans; and ensure that millionaires, billionaires, and corporations pay their fair share of taxes.

Previously, Pearl was a managing director at BlackRock, one of the largest investment firms in the world, His work included the Maiden Lane transactions and assessing the government’s potential losses from bank bailouts in the United States and in Europe. Prior to BlackRock, Pearl had a long tenure on Wall Street where he invented some of the securitization technology connecting America’s capital markets to consumers in need of credit. He is a CFA Charter Holder, a member of the CFA Institute, the New York Society of Securities Analysts, and on the board of The Center for Political Accountability. Pearl lives in New York City with his wife Barbara where he enjoys spending time with his two adult sons and riding his bicycle around the city.

Alexa Raad is a 25+ year tech veteran and C-suite executive in the DNS, internet infrastructure and cybersecurity industry.  She received her MBA and MSIS from George Washington University in 1993 and 1998 respectively.  She has led multiple initiatives to ensure a safer internet from both a technical and policy standpoint.  She spearheaded the adoption of DNSSEC (DNS Security Extension Protocols) as CEO of Public Interest Registry, the organization behind the .org Top Level Domain. Alexa has conceived, built and led DNS industry-wide coalitions and organizations to address larger issues such as DNS abuse and cybersecurity.  She is the author of a US and European patent on cybersecurity. Alexa is also a member of the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, and has served by appointment as a Webby’s judge since 2008.

Mark Ritchie served as Minnesota Secretary of State from 2006 untiI 2015. He grew up in Iowa, and graduated from Iowa State University in 1971. From 1986 until 2006, Ritchie served as the president of the Minneapolis-based Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, a non-profit organization working with businesses, churches, farm organizations, and civic groups to foster long-term sustainability for Minnesota’s rural communities. Among other issues, it looked into how global trade rules impact family farmers and rural communities. He also founded the League of Rural Voters. Secretary Ritchie has been a faculty member for election law seminars conducted by the Minnesota Institute for Legal Education, the Minnesota and Hennepin County Bar Associations, the University of Minnesota and William and Mary Law School. The 2011 Secretary Ritchie was awarded the Dwight David Eisenhower Excellence in Public Service Award and the Distinguished Public Leadership Award from Toward Zero Deaths for his leadership in helping to motivate law enforcement officers, legislators and the public to continue to fight against drunk driving. Since leaving office, Secretary Ritchie as served as President and CEO at Minnesota World’s Fair Bid Committee.

Aviel D. Rubin, Ph.D. is Professor of Computer Science and Technical Director of the Information Security Institute at Johns Hopkins University. Prior to joining Johns Hopkins, Rubin was a research scientist at AT&T Labs. Rubin has testified before the U.S. House and Senate on multiple occasions, and he is author of several books including Brave New Ballot (Random House, 2006) Firewalls and Internet Security, second edition (with Bill Cheswick and Steve Bellovin, Addison Wesley, 2003), White-Hat Security Arsenal (Addison Wesley, 2001), and Web Security Sourcebook (with Dan Geer and Marcus Ranum, John Wiley & Sons, 1997). He is Associate  Editor of ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, Associate Editor of IEEE Security & Privacy, and an Advisory Board member of Springer’s Information Security and Cryptography Book Series. In January, 2004 Baltimore Magazine name Rubin a Baltimorean of the Year for his work in safeguarding the integrity of our election process, and he is also the recipient of the 2004 Electronic Frontier Foundation Pioneer Award. Rubin has a B.S, (’89), M.S.E (’91), and Ph.D. (’94) from the University of Michigan.

Ion Sancho was the Supervisor of Elections for Leon County, Florida for 27 years. Serving since January 1989, he has been reelected to five additional terms.  One of only three (out of 67) supervisors of elections in Florida without party affiliation, Mr. Sancho has devoted special attention to studying voting technologies and increasing citizen participation in our electoral system. Under his administration Leon County’s voter turnout percentage has consistently ranked among the highest of Florida’s 67 counties, with a record setting 86% turnout in the November 2008 General Election. Mr. Sancho was appointed by the Florida Supreme Court in December of 2000 as the technical expert to oversee the Florida Recount effort and was recognized by the Leon County Board of County Commissioners for providing “statistically the cleanest county elections in the state” during that infamous election. In 2005, Mr. Sancho sanctioned the first tests of voting machines by voting integrity experts, independent of the vendors.  His action were captured in the 2007 Emmy nominated film, “Hacking Democracy.”

Sancho was the first Florida election official to attain national certification in 1996 (Certified Elections Registration Official, the Election Center).  He is regularly interviewed by national and local media and has presented testimony before the United States Congress, the United States Election Assistance Committee, and the United States Civil Rights Commission.  In 1998, he co-authored the first national Principles and Standards of Conduct of Elections/Registrations Officials. In 2008, the Leon County Supervisor of Elections Office received the National Freedom Award for outstanding innovations in the field of elections.

Dr. John E. Savage is the An Wang Professor of Computer Science at Brown University. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1965 after earning his PhD in Electrical Engineering at MIT, moving to Brown University in 1967 where in 1979 he co-founded the Department of Computer Science at Brown, serving as its second chair from 1985 to 1991. His served Brown as Chair of the Faculty Executive Committee and the 2002-2003 Task Force on Faculty Governance and many other capacities. He was a member of the MIT Corporation Visiting Committee for EECS from 1991-2002. He gave testimony before the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism in 2011.

Dr. Savage has done research on coding and communication theory, theoretical computer science, VLSI theory, silicon compilation, scientific computing, computational nanotechnology, the performance of multicore chips, reliable computing with unreliable elements, and cybersecurity policy. He is a Guggenheim Fellow and a Fellow of AAAS and ACM, and a Life Fellow of IEEE. He served as Jefferson Science Fellow in the U.S. Department of State in 2009-2010. He is a Professorial Fellow at the EastWest Institute, and member of the Board of the Michael Dukakis Institute.

Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a “security guru” by the Economist. He is the author of 14 books – including the New York Times best-seller Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World – as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter “Crypto-Gram” and blog “Schneier on Security” are read by over 250,000 people. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University; a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School; a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, AccessNow, and the Tor <Project; and an advisory board member of EPIC and He is also a special advisor to IBM Security and the Chief Technology Officer of IBM Resilient.


Pamela SmithPamela Smith is Past President of Verified Voting. She provides information and public testimony on verified voting issues at federal and state levels throughout the US, including to the US House of Representatives Committee on House Administration. She oversees an extensive information resource on election equipment and the regulations governing its use at the federal level and across the 50 states. Ms. Smith is co-editor of the Principles and Best Practices in Post Election Audits, co-author of “Counting Votes 2012: A State By State Look at Election Preparedness” and the author of an introductory chapter on audits for Confirming Elections: Creating Confidence and Integrity through Election Auditing. She has been a small business and marketing consultant and nonprofit executive for a Hispanic educational organization working on first language literacy and adult learning.

board photoEugene H. Spafford is a professor of Computer Sciences at Purdue University. He is also a professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering (courtesy appointment), Philosophy (courtesy), a professor of Communication (courtesy), a professor of Political Science (courtesy), and is the founder and Executive Director Emeritus of the Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security. CERIAS is a campus-wide multi-disciplinary Center, with a broadly-focused mission to explore issues related to protecting information and information resources.

Spafford has been working in computing as a student, researcher, consultant and professor for over 30 years. Some of his past work is at the foundation of current security practice, including intrusion detection, firewalls, and whitelisting. His most recent work has been in cyber security policy, forensics, and security philosophy. Professor Spafford is a Fellow of the AAAS, ACM, IEEE, (ISC)2, a Distinguished Fellow of the ISSA, and a member of the Cyber Security Hall of Fame — the only person to ever hold all these distinctions. In 2012 he was named as one of Purdue’s inaugural Morrill Professors — the university’s highest award for the combination of scholarship, teaching, and service. He is a recipient of the National Computer Security Systems Award, a IFIP Kristian Beckman Award, a CRA Distinguished Service Award, an ACM President’s Award, and the (ISC)^2 Harold F. Tipton Award — among others. Among many other activities he is the immediate past-chair of the Public Policy Council of ACM (USACM), and is editor-in-chief of the journal Computers & Security.

Vanessa Teague, Ph.D. is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Computing and Information Systems at at The University of Melbourne. She did her Bachelor’s Degree at The University of Melbourne and her Ph.D. in cryptography and game theory at Stanford University. Her main research interest is in electronic voting, with a focus on cryptographic schemes for end-to-end verifiable elections and a special interest in complex voting schemes such as IRV and STV. She was a major contributor to the Victorian Electoral Commission’s end-to-end verifiable electronic voting project, the first of its kind to run at a state level anywhere in the world. She has been part of two separate research teams that found serious security vulnerabilities in the NSW iVote Internet voting system (first in 2015 and again in Western Australia in 2017).  Her other work includes the development of rigorous and efficient auditing methods for complex voting schemes.

Michael Ubell has retired from a 40 year career developing database and transaction management systems. Ubell began his career working on the original Ingres project at the University of California. He has served in engineering and management roles at Britton Lee, Digital Equipment Corporation, Illustra, Informix, Oracle and Cloudera. Currently he volunteers on open data and gun violence prevention projects in Oakland California. He is currently on the leadership team of the OpenOakland Brigade of Code for America. He holds a BA in Mathematics and Computer Science from Hampshire College and a MA in Computer Science from the University of California at Berkeley.


Poorvi L. Vora is Professor of Computer Science at The George Washington University (GW). Her research focus has been on end-to-end independently verifiable (E2E) voting systems which enable voters and observers to audit election outcomes without requiring them to rely on the trustworthiness of election technology or unobserved election processes. Prof. Vora was a member of the team that deployed polling-­place, paper-­ballot-­based, E2E voting system Scantegrity II in the Takoma Park elections of 2009 and 2011, and of the team that developed remote voting E2E system Remotegrity and accessible voting variant Audiotegrity, used in 2011. She has worked with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on definitions of desired properties of E2E systems, and on information-­theoretic models and measures of voting system security properties. She has a Ph.D from North Carolina State University.

Nancy Wallace is a Maryland Voting Activist affiliated with the Campaign for Verifiable Voting in Maryland. Background: Experienced lobbyist and volunteer organizer. Wallace has worked for Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), as supervisor of a team of three software testers handling 12 of the 13 national computer systems which support case adjudication by the US Citizenship and Immigration Service. She is also in charge of process compliance, or what the Program Manual terms quality control, for the software development and testing.

wallach_TBDan Wallach is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and a Rice Scholar at the Baker Institute for Public Policy at Rice University in Houston, Texas. His research considers a variety of different computer security topics, ranging from web browsers and servers through electronic voting technologies and smartphones.

Wayne Williams served as Colorado Secretary of State from 2015 to 2019.  As Secretary of State, Williams adopted new voting standards requiring voter-verifiable paper ballots and implemented the nation’s first full risk limiting audit.  Williams’ election security efforts were recognized nationally by both Fox News and The Washington Post who called Colorado “the safest state to cast a vote.”  Under Williams’ leadership Colorado also led the nation in voter registration and turnout.  He served for three years on the Executive Committee of the National Association of Secretaries of State.

Prior to serving as Secretary of State, Williams served as El Paso County Clerk & Recorder, where he successfully ran elections in Colorado’s most populous county. Williams graduated magna cum laude from Brigham Young University (B.A., Political Science, 1986), received his law degree from the University of Virginia (J.D. 1989), and is a Certified Elections/Registration Administrator.  Williams is a Harry S Truman Scholar.  He also received the Medallion Award from the National Association of Secretaries of State for his efforts in protecting the right to vote during the fire-ravaged primary election in 2012.