Audit Algorithms

Algorithms for post-election audits are the subject of active research. There is more than one way to approach the goal: providing solid evidence supporting correct election outcomes and overturning incorrect ones.

Here is a short list of introductions to audit algorithms.

  • A plain-language introduction to risk-limiting audits, including practical considerations for choosing among algorithms, written by a working group of election officials, researchers and advocates, is Risk-Limiting Post-Election Audits: Why and How, by Bretschneider, et al.
  • A detailed technical introduction to risk-limiting audit algorithms, written by researchers, is A Gentle Introduction to Risk-Limiting Audits, by Lindeman and Stark.
  • Online tools for conducting ballot-polling or ballot-comparison risk-limiting audits, along with detailed explanations, are available courtesy of Verified Voting Board Member Professor Philip Stark.
  • Verified Voting Board Member Professor Ron Rivest discusses some alternate, simpler algorithms to build confidence in results

Download PDF Download this page in PDF format